Saturday, March 21, 2020
Introduction to Landscape Painting Landscapes are works of art that feature scenes of nature. This includes mountains, lakes, gardens, rivers, and any scenic view. Landscapes can be oil paintings, watercolors, gauche, pastels, or prints of any kind. Painting the Scenery Derived from the Dutch word landschap, landscape paintings capture the natural world around us. We tend to think of this genre as majestic mountain scenes, gently rolling hills, and still water garden ponds. Yet, landscapes can depict any scenery and feature subjects within them such as buildings, animals, and people. While there is a traditional viewpoint of landscapes, over the years artists have turned to other settings. Cityscapes, for instance, are views of urban areas, seascapes capture the ocean, andÃ waterscapes feature freshwater such as the work of Monet on the Seine. Landscape as a Format In art, the word landscape has another definition. Landscape format refers to a picture plane that has a width which is greater than its height. Essentially, it is a piece of art in a horizontal rather than a vertical orientation. Landscape in this sense is indeed derived from landscape paintings. The horizontal format is much more conducive to capturing the wide vistas that artists hope to portray in their work. A vertical format, though used for some landscapes, tends to restrict the vantage point of the subject and may not have the same impact. Landscape Painting in History As popular as they may be today, landscapes are relatively new to the art world. Capturing the beauty of the natural world was not a priority in early art when the focus was on spiritual or historical subjects.Ã It was not until the 17th century that landscape painting began to emerge. Many art historians recognize that it was during this time that scenery became the subject itself and not just an element in the background. This included the work of French painters Claude Lorraine and Nicholas Poussin as well as Dutch artists like Jacob van Ruysdael. Landscape painting ranked fourth in the hierarchy of genres set up by the French Academy. History painting, portraiture, and genre painting were considered more important. The still life genre was considered less important. This new genre of painting took off, and by the 19th century, it had gained widespread popularity. It often romanticized the scenic views and came to dominate the subjects of paintings as artists attempted to capture what was around them for all to see. Landscapes also gave the first (and only) glimpse many people had of foreign lands. When the Impressionists emerged in the mid-1800s, landscapes began to be less realistic and literal. Though collectors will always enjoy realistic landscapes, artists like Monet, Renoir,Ã and Cezanne demonstrated a new view of the natural world. From there, landscape painting has thrived, and it is now one of the most popular genres among collectors. Artists have taken the landscape to a variety of places with new interpretations and many sticking with tradition. One thing is for sure; the landscape genre now dominates the landscape of the art world.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Least, Less, More, and Most Ã¢â¬Å"Least,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Less,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"More,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"MostÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Least,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Less,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"More,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"MostÃ¢â¬ By Mark Nichol The adjectives least, less, more, and most present difficulties for writers when the words are paired with other adjectives: Should hyphens be employed? And what about when little, much, and similar terms are involved? Generally, do not hyphenate such constructions. The following examples are all correct: Ã¢â¬Å"She bought the least expensive shampoo.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never heard a less interesting story.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the most regrettable part.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We have a more likely explanation.Ã¢â¬ But use these words cautiously in such sentences. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"He made several more successful effortsÃ¢â¬ is ambiguous: Does it mean that the person added a few successful efforts to his record of previous successful ones, or that the personÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts were more successful than previous ones? Some writers choose to hyphenate Ã¢â¬Å"more successfulÃ¢â¬ when appropriate in such a context, but such a strategy leads to inconsistency when the hyphen is omitted in a similar but unambiguous statement. Ã¢â¬Å"He made several additional successful effortsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"He made several efforts that were more successful,Ã¢â¬ respectively, clarifies the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s intent without making exceptions. Very is another problematic term. Most writers likely consider it obvious that no hyphen belongs in Ã¢â¬Å"John held up a very full bucket,Ã¢â¬ but very stands alone even when it modifies a hyphenated phrasal adjective, as in Ã¢â¬Å"They chose three very well-liked students.Ã¢â¬ But compare these conventions with the custom for such words as little, much, seldom, and often. These words, all of which except often can be adjectives or adverbs, serve the latter function when they precede an adjective and a noun and in this case, they require a hyphen. (ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s counterintuitive, because adjectives are often hyphenated to a following word, while adverbs rarely are.) Here are some examples: Ã¢â¬Å"Mary spoke about a little-understood aspect of the animalÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He explained a much-misunderstood phenomenon.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The seldom-seen plant is found in only one place.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The project was plagued by interventions with often-inconclusive results.Ã¢â¬ (As with phrasal adjectives, these word pairs are not hyphenated after the noun. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"Mary spoke about an aspect of the animalÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior that is little understood.Ã¢â¬ ) Note this exception: Ã¢â¬Å"The somewhat subjective report omitted some important details.Ã¢â¬ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Possessive of Proper Names Ending in S41 Words That Are Better Than GoodWhat Is a Doctor?
Monday, February 17, 2020
2.What is the democratic peace theory What are its strengths and weaknesses - Essay Example The empirical association between peace and democracy has been challenged and debated since the inception of this theory to the current times. Statistically, the likelihood of democracies going into war is considered to be very low (Art and Jervis, 2005: 256). This theory not only challenges the existence and validity of other systems of politics such as communism and fascism, but also challenges the prevailing international relations realist view, which emphasizes that common strategic interests and calculations of balance of power are what explain stability and peace which characterizes liberal democracies relations (Baylis, Smith and Owens, 2010: 424). It is no doubt that DPT is a fundamental aspect in understanding international relation and politics. Therefore, this essay will focus on understanding DPT in detail, as well as focus on its advantages and disadvantages. The proponents of DPT have offered several explanations regarding the assertion that democracies rarely or never go to war with each other. Some of these explanations include: democracies often peaceful conflict resolution norms that they employ in external relations; democracies relate and trade heavily with other democracies and war will be very costly and of little or no gain at all; democracies are made up of democratic institutions like powerful legislations and competitive elections which may prohibit governments from going to war; and democratic leaders are answerable to voters for issues such as war and therefore they have an incentive to find alternatives (Art and Jervis, 2005: 257). Fundamentally, there are four main explanations for the democratic peace theory: structural, monadic, dyadic, and normative explanations. The structural explanation holds that it is the representative government institutions which hold decision makers and elected officials accountable to a wide electorate, which make a war to be
Monday, February 3, 2020
Digital Telecommunications and Networks - Essay Example In the signal amplification of analog systems, noise is amplified with the analog signal. Thus, the signal-to-noise ratio deteriorates for each time an analog signal is amplified. Digital regenerators, on the other hand, reproduce an entirely new digital signal from a sample noisy digital signal. The signal-to-noise ratio of this new digital signal has the same signal-to-noise ratio as the original signal. Thus, digital signals can be transmitted over longer distances than analog signals. Pulse Code Modulation is simply digitally coding analog signals. It consists of sampling analog information signals and then converting them to a serial n-bit binary code for transmission over a physical medium. With PCM, each code has the same number of bits and requires the same length of time for transmission. The presence or absence of a pulse within a specific time slot indicates either a logic condition of 1 or 0 respectively. Wayne Tomasi, in his book Electronic Communications Systems, outlined how a simplex PCM system is integrated in telephony: An analog input signal passes a band pass filter which limits it to the standard voice-band frequency range of 300Hz to 3000Hz. The sample and hold circuit periodically converts samples of the analog input signal to a multilevel Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) signal. The analog-to-digital converter (ADC) converts these PAM signals to parallel PCM codes. These parallel PCM codes are then converted to serial binary data in the parallel-to-signal converter. Finally, the serial binary data are then outputted onto the transmission medium as serial pulses. At the receiver's end of the transmission medium, the serial pulses pass through the serial-to-parallel converter. The digital-to-analog converter then converts parallel PCM codes to parallel PAM signals. Finally, the hold circuit which is a low pass filter, converts parallel PAM signals to the original analog sig nal (408). Time Division Multiplexing is the transmission of information from multiple sources to one or more destinations using the same facility but at different transmission times. The following are the fundamentals of how Time Division Multiplexing is integrated in telephony as summarized by Wayne Tomasi: In a 2-channel PCM-TDM system, each channel's input is sampled and then converted to an eight-bit PCM code. While the PCM code of channel 1 is transmitted over the transmission medium, channel 2 analog input signals is sampled and converted to a PCM code. And when the PCM code of channel 2 is transmitted, it is channel 1 that then undergoes analog input sampling and conversion (453). C.) Describe the main operating principles of CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technology and GSM (Global System Mobile) technology in mobile communication. Code-Division Multiple Accessing is a cellular telephone system based on spread-spectrum technology. It uses a unique code rather than a frequency or time assignment to differentiate users from one another. With CDMA, the base station uses
Sunday, January 26, 2020
A Case Study In IBM Services Information Technology Essay Improving customer relationships is the deployment and management of the customers CRM application. Outsourced call centre services are delivered by an IBM business partner. Customers choose the CRM application components that fit their needs: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service. Balancing cost, the customer experience and revenue enhancement are truly differentiate the contact centre (Pritchard, 2004). The contact centre environment has changed dramatically in recent years. Early call centres were cost centres, built to take advantage of the telephony technology of the time. Typically confined to one physical location, they relied on interaction-based, frontline support and had little financial justification of costs. Frequent handoffs among agents created inconsistencies, as did paper-intensive processes and product-based structures. Today, contact centres are becoming increasingly customer-focused and are gearing up to solve problems and generate revenue. A proliferation of channels is giving companies a variety of opportunities to communicate with their customers. And with more opportunities for up-selling and new ways to cut costs, the contact centre is transforming into a profit centre. As organizations make this transformation, they are faced with identifying areas for change, reducing service costs, providing a differentiated service, increasing sales, supporting a multichannel customer experience and leveraging technological advances. The challenges, coupled with increasing customer expectations, have created a renewed focus on transforming the contact centre (Pritchard, 2004). IBM Regional Contact Centre (RCC) exemplified what an ideal contact centre should be; a single contact point which provides effective, efficient and improved service to partners and clients through the consolidation of resources and services. The centre serves as a strategic component of IBMs own on-demand initiatives. Organizations are taking a new look at governance of contact center functions and the way calls are handled. Traditionally, contact centers have been organized by geography and business unit. Advance in telephony technology presents new opportunities for streamlining call handling and routing. Virtual contact center queues route calls to the appropriate agent, regardless of geography or department, allowing calls to be handled based on factors such as customer need, the type of transaction or function, the value of the customer or the particular customer segment. This can help boost cost-effectiveness and bring more value to callers, since theyll deal with the best-qualified agent for their particular issue. Leading companies are also adopting a cross-functional approach to the organizational structure of contact center operations. In addition to geography-based service delivery functions, companies are developing global Centers of Excellence for self-serve programs, customer data management, workforce forecasting and scheduling, metrics and reporting, and global queuing and call routing. These Centers of Excellence manage key processes globally, identify opportunities for improvement and work with the operational service delivery functions to implement transformation-related change programs (IBM Business Consulting Services, 2004). IBM Values Dedication to every clients success: IBM employees are passionate about building strong, long-lasting client relationships. This dedication spurs IBM to go above and beyond on its clients behalf. IBM sells products, services and solutions, but all with the goal of helping its clients succeed, however they measure success. Innovation that matters for our company and for the world: IBM employees are forward thinkers. IBM believes in progress, believes that the application of intelligence, reason and science can improve business, society and the human condition. IBM loves grand challenges, as well as everyday improvements. Whatever the problem or the context, every IBM employee seeks ways to tackle it creatively to be an innovator. Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships: IBM employees actively build relationships with all the constituencies of its business including clients, partners, communities, investors and fellow IBM employees. IBM builds trust by listening, following through and keeping its word. IBM Mission To Drive Client Loyalty and Profitable Growth through Service Delivery Excellence IBM Vision To be the IT Service Provider of Choice in Asia Pacific IBM Commitments Growth Client Referenceability Drive client satisfaction by aligning IBMs efforts to its clients business imperatives, priorities and challenges Delivery Service Excellence Protect its clients business through a strong controls posture and operational discipline Provide competitive high quality service through standardization and automation Enable IBM Team for Growth Develop and nurture IBM people to play an active role in the globally integrated enterprise IBM Goals Excel in delivering competitive, high quality and efficient IT services to its clients Meet and exceed all IBM financial objectives Achieve and exceed IBM Quality targets Protect the IBM brand by maintaining Satisfactory control posture and delivering with integrity Promote a culture where IBM work as One Team and promulgate best practice Equip IBMs employees with skills and knowledge to deliver quality services to its clients and make the right investment in training and certification Accelerate the development and growth of IBM leadership talent Foster communications to IBM staff and ensure key messages are delivered in a timely and consistent manner Literature Review Today, IT departments are pressured into doing more with less, and that this will require innovative approaches to management and operating staff. Innovations in technology are also supporting this, as silos within operations, and between operations and the service desk and application development, are slowly being bridged by innovative management and monitoring software solutions designed for modularity, cohesiveness and automation. Currently, IT services are delivered through a mix of structured and unstructured work activities. Structured activities rely primarily on standardized processes, procedures, and tools. In IT service support and delivery, an increasingly popular standardization effort is embodied by Information Technology Infrastructure Libraries (ITIL) which prescribes processes for capacity management, availability management, service-level management, financial management to achieve high quality IT service (Bailey, Kandogan, Haber, Maglio, 2007). As IT departments pl an to bridge this divide, it is important to keep in mind that the automation can empower us to become more efficient, but we will be sacrificing some of the gains if we are not willing to leverage the advantages of automation as a transformative, cultural and process catalyst because they are interdependent. Definition of Terms There are many terms involve in implementing Call Centre as an outsource business to the company and for IT outsource, it has its own standard to follow. For example, IBM conducts IT service delivery (ITSD) based on Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) standards. IT service management (ITSM or IT services) is a discipline for managing Information Technology (IT) systems, philosophically centered on the customers perspective of ITs contribution to the business. ITSM stands in deliberate contrast to technology-centered approaches to IT management and business interaction. Feldman (2007) mentioned that Providers of IT services can no longer afford to focus on technology and their internal organization, they now have to consider the quality of the services they provide and focus on the relationship with customers. The Service Delivery Structure describes accumulations of the customers accumulated in the system. The derivative between flow-in, customer flow rate, and flow-out, service completed rate, determine stock level. The dynamics of service delivery management will be comprised of four feedback structures: labor structure, capacity structure, cost structure, and service delivery structure. Service backlog or work in process, the stock of the service delivery structure, depending on customer flow or order rate and service completed rate or order fulfillment rate. Accumulations of stock stem from derivative of flow-in and flow-out at the points of time (Phoomphuang S., 2004). Service Desk is the place where exist the receipt and resolution of service requests, technical guidance, communication, etc. The central contact point between users and IT staff (Steel, 2008). Also it is the first place that the customer contacts when they have a problem or any request. Service Level Management (SLM) ensures that the agreed services are delivered when and where they are supposed to be delivered. SLM is a very important concept concentrating on value which is an intangible concept. If this value is destroyed by breaching any part of the Service Level Agreements (SLAs), it can have some negative consequences for the service provider as the customer will be dissatisfied. Information Technologies Infrastructure Library (ITIL): ITIL best practices were first developed in the 1980s by the British governments Office of Government Commerce (OGC) formerly called the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency. ITIL is a collection of best practices that have become widely observed in the IT service industry and a detailed framework of a number of significant IT practices, with comprehensive checklists, tasks, procedures, and responsibilities that are designed to be tailored to any IT organization. ITIL suggests that any IT operation should have some form of help desk where users of IT can ask questions or resolve problems. ITIL describes recommended best practices such as how to investigate and solve reported problems called into the operations help desk. These are the best practices and processes that are necessary for IT to process its applications in an efficient, controlled environment (Moeller, 2008). ITIL and IBM Service Delivery Process IBM has its own implementation of ITIL for IT service management. The service starts as soon as the contract is signed between the customer and IBM. Service delivery and service support team take control after contract is signed. IBM uses its own processes in order to deliver the services agreed contractually. IBM staff has to be familiar with these processes in order to deliver the services without any problem. These processes are standard and consistent across the globe for IBM and they are collected under different folders at IBM. These can be thought as related processes defined in ITIL collected under different titles. IBM procedures are confidential and cannot be described (Nazimoglu Ozsen, 2010). In business, the fit between the business strategy with respect to products and services provided to external customers and the internal structure of the enterprise is critical for economic performance and efficiency. Henderson and Venkatraman (1993) had concluded that the strategic alignment fits between external and internal business and IT strategies. Business strategy can drive IT strategy as well as the organizational and IT infrastructure, but IT strategy can also enable new and enhanced business strategies. Functional integration of business and IT makes IT a source of Competitive advantage. Environment The IBM Regional Contact Centre (RCC) has empowered IBM Malaysia to be more responsive, variable, focused and resilient by enabling the company to respond with flexibility and speed to any customer demand, market opportunity or external threat. The RCC is the sixth regional centre that IBM has established in Malaysia, after the Asia Pacific South Regional Administrative Support Centre, the Asean/ South Asia Regional Technical Sales Support Centre, the Asean Regional Support Centre for Integrated Technology Services, the Asia Pacific South Accounting Centre, and the IBM Global Financing Regional Centre for Asean/ South Asia, Greater China and Korea. The RCC supports four prime business functions: Teleweb marketing suport services, backoffice customer support services, and integrated technology support services, which cover the Asean region. The fourth business function is the strategic outsourcing helpdesk which supports the Asia Pacific region. The RCC is the latest of the companys 11 regional shared-services centres and is equipped with a multilingual workforce that caters for nine languages, including Tagalog, Japanese, Korean and Thai. Organization IBM has eleven regional centres located in Malaysia to support the IBM Corporation globally. Six of these centres are Operational Headquarters (OHQs), a status awarded by the Malaysian Industrial Development Authority (MIDA) to companies serving their offices regionally and globally. Located in Plaza IBM, headquarters in Bandar Utama, these centres are: IBM Asia Pacific Accounting centre: Provides accounting services for IBM in Asia Pacific, such as costs and revenues, Inventory/PIMS, DSW Software Accounting, monthly financial closing and reporting, expense accounting, APSC, WTAC, IGF accounting, services accounting, business control, SOX, statutory accounts and country accounting operations. IBM Asia Pacific Competency centre: Provides end-to-end administrative services, such as customer records, loading of customer orders, contract preparation, scheduling (negotiating with various plants in the world for supply to meet customer requirements), inventory management, billing, accounts receivable collection, systems controls and testing. Asia Pacific IBM Global Financing centre of Excellence: Manages most of the administrative and back-office tasks for the whole of the Asia Pacific region, such as contract creation, lease inception and booking of contracts into a lease portfolio system. Supports contract management, fulfillment, pricing, financial planning and internal controls. It also centralized financial management information and planning support to IBMs country leaders and management teams across the Asia Pacific region. Other areas of support include administration, forecasting, budgeting and financial analysis. IBM World Wide Competency centre: Delivers efficient, global common processes, tools, and applications with standardization, simplification, and automation, in order to accelerate IBMs positioning as a global integrated company. ASEAN Regional Technical Sales Support centre: Provides pre-sales technical support and technical enablement to ASEAN, Asia Pacific and other parts of the world which cover IBM hardware and software offerings. IBM Regional Contact centre (RCC): Provides integrated technology support services, pre-sales technical support and strategic outsourcing help-desk for the ASEAN region. Offers technical assistance in English, Mandarin, Cantonese, Japanese, Korea, Bahasa Malaysia, Bahasa Indonesia, Vietnam and Thai. IBM is a company that strives to lead in the creation, development and manufacture of the industrys most advanced information technologies (IT), including computer systems, software, networking systems, storage devices and microelectronics. The companys business in ASEAN/SA is primarily comprised of sales and distribution of services, hardware, and software. These offerings are bolstered by IBMs research and development capabilities. IBM can also provide financing depending on its customers needs. The fundamental strength of this model is IBMs ability to assemble the optimal mix of these offerings to design tailored solutions for customers. IBMs operations in ASEAN/SA cover countries including Singapore, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. IBM in Malaysia is a wholly-owned onshore subsidiary of IBM World Trade Corporation. In IBM Malaysia, there are a few thousand employees of diverse backgrounds and talents serving in professional and support function roles, including regional positions. IBM Malaysia is committed to playing a major role in cultivating the use and development of IT in Malaysia, a mission that mirrors the Governments objective of making the country a regional and global hub of knowledge-based industries. IBM Malaysia is to be completely local organization in terms of expertise, 52% of our employees are women. The company is also heavily involved in developing local capability through a string of alliances (Are you an IBMer, 2010). Moreover, IBMers collaborate every day with their over 390,000 colleagues with growing networks of clients, advocates, experts and peers and with our neighbors, local organizations and millions of people they have never met and never will meet. This is simply how business is done in a globally integrating economy (About IBM, n.d) to support the integration of processes and operations; IBM has Globally Integrated Enterprise (GIE) governance. It puts the focus of decision makers on end users, productivity, standards, and integration to achieve maximum value from business transformation investments (BT/IT Governance, n.d). Furthermore, the GIE governance system emphasizes cross-functional and cross-unit team. Leadership and management roles are designed to pro vide clear ownership of the end-to-end business model and create a means to coordinate processes and transformation initiatives across organizations (BT/IT Governance, n.d). IBM has chosen Malaysia for its regional contact centre to serve the Asean region amid keen interest shown by other nations to have one here. The IBM Asean Regional Contact Centre (RCC) is due to start operation in Cyberjaya in the middle of the year 2003. The RCC, to be managed by some 60 staff, would provide support services to IBM business units, business partners and customers in five Asean countries namely Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia. Currently, the numbers of IBM clients have increased and the support countries among Asia Pacific have also been added China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, India and Australia. Thus, the numbers of IBM RCC staff now have been increased to more than 100 including both local and international staff to support clients based on native languages offer. The support services include tele-sales and tele-marketing, customer support operations, and so on. Locale IBM Malaysia Sdn Bhd is investing RM 8 million to set up its Customer Support Operation (CSO) center in Malaysia that would operate as a hub for end-to-end order procurement covering 17 countries in Asean and South Asia. The CSO allows electronic ordering from IBMS manufacturing plants, receiving orders from its customers and business partners, collaboration among co-workers through e-mail and supporting of IBM Asean and South Asia business units and partners (IBM Malaysia to Spend RM8 MLN on Customer Centre, 2000). The location of IBMs CSO is in Cyberjaya. This department provides integrated technology support services, pre-sales technical support technical enablement, strategic outsourcing help-desk for the ASEAN region which cover IBM hardware and software. This department also provides post sales technical support and services and also remote technical support for all IBM hardware and software. A customer support representative also will assist the clients about their contract enquires, invoice enquires. IBM CSO Offers technical assistance in English, Mandarin, Cantonese, Japanese, Bahasa Malaysia, Bahasa Indonesia, Korea, and Thai. The case study was conducted at IBM Regional Contact Centre (RCC), Cyberjaya. The company is focusing on IT outsourcing which offering IT support; service desk or helpdesk to IBMs clients. There are only three main departments at RCC; Human Resource Recruitment, Financial and IT department. There are many sub departments under IT department, each department has its own name based on the client or project that their handle such as IGA (IBM Global Assistance), Merk, Maxis, Michelin, DBSchenker, Singapore Airline, BMW, Lenovo, JLL, DOW, Celestica, Philips, Affin Bank, and etc. Each department or team may have some different application based on clients application, but there are some applications and software that most of the team have such as Windows XP, Microsoft Office, Lotus notes, Sametime, Citrix (Mainframe), AS400 and others. The team will have their own Knowledge Management and Knowledge Based which provided by IBM databases, so they can find their source of knowledge, better understanding and solve the problem within short period of time. IBM provides IT outsources to the clients based on Service Level Agreement (SLA) and Service Level Objectives (SLO). In IBM RCC, one manager and one agent can handle more than one projects, at least one person should support two projects based on Global Delivery Framework (GDF) standards. Both teams that an agent or manager handle may have some different and similar applications to support. Protagonists The case was conducting at IBM, Cyber Jaya. We made an appointment with one of Transition managers to be our interviewee. His name is Trevor Thum and his position is under Integrated Technology Delivery (ITD), End User Support. Trevor is a young manager who handles many projects. He started working at IBM RCC as first level support; service desk. After few months, he had become Windows support for Affin Bank project. Two years later, he has been promoted to be a manager. During the interview session, there was a weakness; most of IBM information are confidential and cannot be disclosed. However, he provided us some guidance for our reference. Referring to the organizational chart of a team, it will consist of manager, focal manager, team leader, and agents. The agents will be more than five depends on customers request and how large the project is. Moreover, if there is any issue from customers such as complaint, an agent will raise it to Team lead, then team leader will discuss with focal manager. Later on, both of them will have a meeting with Trevor and he will decide what should the team handle this complaint and prevent it in the future. If he cannot find the solution, he will propose it to his manager or upper level for finalize and explain to the customers for the mistaken or any other reasons. Furthermore, when there is an additional application requested by clients, manager will have a meeting for more information and explain to team leader to train all agents to ensure that everyone is educated and ready to support users before it launches. In addition, if there is a new client registered to IBM RCC, the top manager will assign the project to one of team manager who deserves for the project, then the team manager will have meeting with client for SLA, SLO, and other requirements based on customers request. After that the team manager will start to hire new agents to support customers and handle the call. For recruitments, the team manager will cooperate with Manpower on staff hiring. Once Manpower got a new candidate with qualification, they will make an appointment with team manager for interview session. Then the team manager will decide whether hire this candidate or not. If IBM team manager decide to hire that agent, the agent will be first trained by Manpower staff and proceed with the training of particular project mentors by team leader and other experience agent. After one month of training, the team leader will do test call with the agent to make sure that the agent is expert enough to handle users calls and re ady to Go Live (the date of project begins with IBM starting from the day that has been signed on SLA contract. The team performance will be depended on SLA and Key Performance Indicator (KPI). However, IBM will decide either to increase agents salary or monthly incentive amount based on agents daily performance, compliment from customers, and team contribution. Figure 1. Team Organization Structure Situation Nowadays, nobody disputes the IT importance as the backbone for commerce. IT implementation helps company to reduce operational cost and increase revenue and profit significantly, although some of company not so well in utilizing IT resources. Beside many good stories from some of company, others also have the failure story in adopting IT capabilities caused by collaboration or implication on high investment, structure complexity, dependencies, changes of trends, dynamic environment, etc. Arguably, it affected the strategy direction of some company with IT and business alignment concept was proposed to improve marketplace competitiveness and increase financial performance. The concept comes at the picture to bridge the gaps of the difference between IT capabilities and business value whereby some organization fail to exploit the full potential of IT investment, adaptable infrastructure and service integration into their environment. Most company stayed still to look which product cou ld be accepted by customer significantly and then come up with clone product with achievable or imitable capabilities like the first one. It happened because the high competition in the market place to locate, not only what product customers want tremendously but also satisfaction and prestige point as well as the consideration. It involves high risky IT investment that might lead the financial become unbalanced so some organization became really careful to make decision, better wait rather than as the pioneer. The trend of IT and business alignment such as virtual office, electronic transaction, off shoring, utilizing private cloud, clone product, high tech consumption, etc. IBM, HP and Dell see other opportunities in renting their knowledge in technical solution as the service to other companies. For IBM, the service delivery optimization is not only about cost savings. IBM views optimization as the process of producing the highly efficient and dynamic infrastructure in exploiting full potential business value from IT investments, and of course emphasizing the responsive improvement and return on investment. IBM approached with holistic and client centre by the reduction of architectural complexity, integration and automation of IT process, business innovation support, customer expectation satisfaction and scale more effectively. IBM has gone through hundred processes engaged various customers across industries in the two decades, these experience and knowledge should be treated as the cr itical asset of the organization or as the intellectual capital consists of solution templates and reference architectures. In short, IBM didnt learn service delivery optimization from a book; IBM is writing the book. By establishing a clear understanding of an organizations optimization objectives and goals, IBM can help to ensure that IT investments are in alignment with the overall business strategy so that subsequent projects can provide real value. The evolution of IT from a technology to a business focus consider various factor drivers those are the compliance, complexity, speed of change and cost. The need to evolve IT should involve the three key ingredients at the heart of service delivery optimization as well, which are IT governance, operating model and funding management while a deficiency in any of these areas will alter and disrupt the outcome significantly. Before the evolution takes the step closer, the identification of IT environment also necessary for opportunities and optimization those are application and data, network, computing and storage, finance and process. For example, the business strategy of one company need to integrate the decentralize data store into centralize data warehouse that need, its the chance to be utilized to remain competitive. Meanwhile, the different culture in organization might be consideration too, that make the difference in priorities, assets and process. IBM will elaborate the stan dard approach with the end-to-end solution that applies the industrys best practice in the reference architecture concepts. Figure 2: IBM Strategic IT Model The strength of the relationship between customers (business side) and service providers (IT organization) decide the direction of success in service management. Beginning in 1997 and 2007 (IT optimization as a source, 2007), IBM started optimizing its own complex, far-flung environment, reaping substantial benefits in operational cost savings as the figure 1 depicted. Its important for the IT organization to provide the lowest-cost operation, but its not sufficient to support business strategies and planning. IT needs to develop other strengths out of efficiency in costs, such as supporting business customers have optimistic view to compete in the markets as well as faster the operation scalability. In this case, figure 2 shows the significant changes happened in IBM company that chose to have a proven, pragmatic and holistic view that even reduce the number of manager inside the organization with the most experience person as well as single source funding by consolidating infrastru cture and application at competitive rates. The level performance is also a point of developing the maturity of the service management capabilities, which drive the operation model of the technology organization. The organizations faces the dreadful challenge of increasing the quality and quantity of services provided to the business such as cloud computing and clone products, while addressing rising technical complexity, cost pressures and tension, faster trend changes and compliance issues at the same time. However, with traditional resources and system management approaches, its clearly impossible to provide effective support for the business and efficient use of technology resources. In the end, IT service management has evolved as the standard for managing effective service delivery optimization that requires: Enable comprehensive business capabilities to support the complete service life cycle from service design to service optimization. Differentiates the value of what you offer, on what terms and in what form, so that it surpasses what customers consider as alternatives. Building a clear understanding of the uncertainty, risks, change and trends. Gather both business and technology stakeholders to define the common goals and future goals. Decide the important priorities and sequence opportunities to improve the financial performance. Competitive payment terms and single-contract simplicity to increase the flexibility. Identifying, articulating and gaining executive management support. End-to-end solutions supported by a worldwide knowledge network as the minimum standardization for supporting business plan. Reduce complexity and cost as well as improve value-added service to meet service levels. Promote customer satisfaction and internal efficiencies to obtain innovativeness and creativeness. In the easiest way, IBM tries to do approach by translating into four elements IT value in meeting with business planning which consist of enablers, improvement, reduction and promoter. The main issues in this case regard the service delivery is how to maintain the service delivery as the competitive advantages in relation with other similar offered-service company that could accommodate right solution matching with latest situation in the environment. The approach to service delivery optimization
Saturday, January 18, 2020
2.1 Introduction The theoretical framework gives information about concepts, together with their definition which are used in the proposed system. This chapter will be giving the relationship of the existing theories given below to the proposed system. 2.2 Transaction Processing System A transaction processing system, or TPS, is a system to capture and process the detailed information necessary to update data on the fundamental operations of an organization. A transaction is essentially a single event that changes something. There are many different types of transactions. For example, customer orders, receipts, invoices, payments, etc. The actual processing of transactions includes the collection, editing, manipulation and storage of data. The result of processing a transaction is that the records of an organization are updated to reflect the new conditions at the time of the last processed transaction. [http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/transaction-processing-systems-tps] TPS will be the type of structure of the proposed system where it can help the owner and staff to process large amount of itemÃ¢â¬â¢s data in the company and to process of transactions in the customer. 2.3 Inventory Management Software Inventory management software is a computer-based system for tracking inventory levels, orders, sales and deliveries. It can also be used in the manufacturing industry to create a work order, bill of materials and other production-related documents. Companies use inventory management software to avoid product overstock and outages. It is a tool for organizing inventory data that before was generally stored in hard-copy form or in spreadsheets. It is often associated with and is similar to distribution software, as distributors that can compete with less cash tied up in inventories have a distinct advantage over their competitors.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inventory_management_software]Ã The proposed system is inventory management software for MiguelÃ¢â¬â¢s Home Merchandise. This is the software where can be store and monitor itemÃ¢â¬â¢s data. 2.4 Point of Sale (POS) Point of sale (also called POS or checkout, during computerization later becoming electronic point of sale or EPOS) is the place where a retail transaction is completed. It is the point at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or services. At the point of sale the retailer would calculate the amount owed by the customer and provide options for the customer to make payment. The merchant will also normally issue a receipt for the transaction. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_of_sale] The proposed system will provide a point of sale system for MiguelÃ¢â¬â¢s Home Merchandise. It will help the company for faster and organize customer transaction. 2.5 Microsoft Office Access Microsoft Access, also known as Microsoft Office Access, is a database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software-development tools. It is a member of the Microsoft Office suite of applications, included in the professional and higher editions or sold separately. Microsoft Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can also import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases. Software developers and data architects can use Microsoft Access to develop application software, and Ã¢â¬Å"power usersÃ¢â¬ can use it to build software applications. Like other Office applications, Access is supported by Visual Basic for Applications, an object-oriented programming language that can reference a variety of objects including DAO (Data Access Objects), ActiveX Data Objects, and many other ActiveX components. Visual objects used in forms and reports expose their methods and properties in the VBA programming environment, and VBA code modules may declare and callÃ Windows operating system functions. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Access] Microsoft Office Access will be the database management system that the proponents will be using to store and monitor all itemsÃ¢â¬â¢ information and also use for saving all reports. 2.6 Visual Basic 6.0 Visual Basic is a programming language and development environment created by Microsoft. It is an extension of the BASIC programming language that combines BASIC functions and commands with visual controls. Visual Basic provides a graphical user interface GUI that allows the developer to drag and drop objects into the program as well as manually write program code. Visual Basic, also referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"VB,Ã¢â¬ is designed to make software development easy and efficient, while still being powerful enough to create advanced programs. For example, the Visual Basic language is designed to be Ã¢â¬Å"human readable,Ã¢â¬ which means the source code can be understood without requiring lots of comments. The Visual Basic program also includes features like Ã¢â¬Å"IntelliSenseÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Code Snippets,Ã¢â¬ which automatically generate code for visual objects added by the programmer. Another feature, called Ã¢â¬Å"AutoCorrect,Ã¢â¬ can debug the code while the program is running. Programs created with Visual Basic can be designed to run on Windows, on the Web, within Office applications, or on mobile devices. Visual Studio, the most comprehensive VB development environment, or IDE, can be used to create programs for all these mediums. Visual Studio .NET provides development tools to create programs based on the .NET framework, such as ASP.NET applications, which are often deployed on the Web. Finally, Visual Basic is available as a streamlined application that is used primarily by beginning developers and for educational. [http://www.techterms.com/definition/visualbasic] Visual Basic 6.0 is providing GUI and it is easily to use because of its drag and drop function. It would be use for all the process of the MiguelÃ¢â¬â¢s Home Merchandise. According to history VB 1.0 was introduced in 1991. TheÃ drag and drop design for creating the user interface is derived from a prototype form generator develop by Alan Cooper and his company called Tripod. Microsoft contracted with cooper and his associates to develop Tripod into a programmable form system for Windows 3.0, under the code name Ruby (no relation to the Ruby programming language) Tripod did not include a programming language at all. Microsoft decided to combine Ruby with the Basic language to create Visual Basic.Ã The Ruby interface generator provided the Ã¢â¬Å"visualÃ¢â¬ part of Visual Basic and this was combined with the Ã¢â¬Å"EBÃ¢â¬ Embedded BASIC engine designed for MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s abandoned Ã¢â¬Å"OmegaÃ¢â¬ database system. Ruby also provided the ability to load dynamic link libraries containing additional controls (the called Ã¢â¬Å"gizmozÃ¢â¬ ), which later became the VBX interface. 2.7 Methodology Software prototyping refers to the activity of creating prototypes of software applications, incomplete versions of the software program being developed. It is an activity that can occur in software development and is comparable to prototyping as known from other fields, such as mechanical engineering or manufacturing. http://istqbexamcertification.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Prototyping-model.jpg Figure 1 Prototyping Model Proponents choose this type of methodology because this type of method can improve the quality and efficiency of the proposed system by testing the code and module in integration testing repeatedly to find the errors in the system before to go to the acceptance and installation, deployment and go to maintenance. This method requires the involvement of the user and they can tell and interact or to give feedback to the development team and know what to change in the system. The development team and the user feedback can provide more changes and improvements in the system. 2.8 Summary In summary, inventory management software and point of sale would be the goal of the proposed system. It would include the all process of companyÃ wherein the proponents will be making an Inventory System with POS for MiguelÃ¢â¬â¢s Home Merchandise. The proponents will be making use of the following software to come up with the system: Visual Basic 6.0 and Microsoft Access for the database.
Friday, January 10, 2020
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